Thursday, April 15, 2010

CIL2010 Postconference: Digital Library Learning Spaces

Alex Cohen, Library Planner, Aaron Cohen Associates
A multigenerational family business for library space planning. Now focusing on transition from print-based space to Learning Commons.

Way to create cultural significance in the physical environment of the library, using endcaps and other space considerations in re equipment and whatnot. In relation to what the library does/collects/serves.

National Library of Greece

Social Fabric - Multifunction space

Cafes don't matter as much as the social gathering space.

Library is a "Place" AND a "Set of Services"

Appreciative Inquiry - turn negatives into positives. What might be. Envisioning impact. what are the best parts of the library. Metaphor - develop a story.
Design - what should be; collaborative work

Basic Assumption that an organization is a problem to be solved, rather than a mystery to be embraced.

- Seating
- Staff - the easy part, most architects can do in their sleep
- Collections

Needs Assessment, including a visual scan storyboarding of existing space; basic and expanded library services.

Core collections and deposit collections

RFID Reference Collection - know where a certain book is at any time, even if the students squirrel them away. Prototype for heavy-use ones.

1 Seat = 300 volumes space-wise

Often space planning can trigger a larger change in the institution. Should be proactive and not just reactive.

150# per cubic foot, even if you're not using top and bottom shelves. You will.

Do a linear foot count of collection, and allow 1 sq ft per linear foot (to allow for aisle, etc) = Net Assignable Square Footage. Xx 1.3 to equal gross square footage.

User seats=50%

Flexibility is crucial

Where is the med school gonna be in 2030?

Stanford uses these mobile smartboard carts that can go to whatever room.

The Living Edge - breathing space, personal space, a view PLUS electrical, network, etc.

~ 20 people per space, creates a more intimate environment, where people will self-police. More than that, and it's a horde.

Media wall - a lovely photo of a rat's brain at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology see examples

Quantitative side vs Qualitative side

No desk?!! Stanford has none in their undergrad space, staff walk around w/ tablets and phones. Students were texting the librarians at the desk anyhow!

Bubble diagram w/ service elements
Self Check-in
Self Check-out
Copier room
Media commons
Collaborative Seating
Reference/Learning Commons
Collaborative Learning Area
Media Commons
24 hr seating
Scholars workstations (reserved carrels)

Use corners for collaborative learning spaces

NATURAL Lighting wherever possible

Stanford - books on the wall are for show, really - in the main reading room, some of the least-used books. Not for browsing as much as an aesthetic environment.

If you must have a service point/node - make it flexible, moveable, adaptable.

Look at the Apple Store Genius Bar - it's really a reference desk!

Most new Academic Libraries are now including a Faculty Resource Center - particularly for older faculty members who need special help with ppt, blackboard, teaching/training in small group or individual. And they can save face.

He learned a lot in Las Vegas - on comfort zones, focal points, perspective and blur, destinations.

Have handout on paper :(

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

CIL2010: Developing and Designing for Mobile

Jeff Wisniewski, Web Services Librarian, University of Pittsburgh

50% of all new internet connections are coming from phones, and in 2014 mobile web usage will surpass desktop web usage (source: Morgan Stanley research)

We're talking about the mobile web, NOT mobile apps. The difference is a single platform, all online, with a lower barrier to entry, and continuous updates. An app is installed, requires multiple platforms, and a programmer to develop it.

Mobile web doesn't require a programmer, because it's HTML and CSS. Can continuously evolve. Context is really important - usually an immediate need for information. So they don't care so much about lending policies. They're generally doing it in a distracted environment.

Mobile usability is an oxymoron (Jakob Nielsen). Minimize the need to input. Nobody really does heavy-duty typing on a mobile device. Think speed and latency - even the fastest connections are relatively slow compared to a laptop.

Remember "Don't Make Me Think!" - now it's "don't make me type"

What sort of content might be useful? Ask your users!

  • directions
  • hours
  • ask a librarian, text a librarian
  • contact info
  • catalog search and actions (like text it to yourself)
  • article search and actions
Many, many sources already have mobile-optimized sites, including PubMed and Ebsco. Many vendors have an "accessible" version of the catalog that will be more mobile-friendly. Often you have to turn it on, though.

Design considerations:
  • single column
  • single line
  • flatten hierarchy
  • short titles
CSS Media type=handlheld? Lies!
most new mobile browsers ignore the handheld style statement, so you get the "full web" on their device.

There's a media query that works more reliably
click to call and/or text

CSS display: none
property to turn off headers, sidebars, etc. to strip out extraneous content
(and you don't have to maintain a separate page)

HTML accesskey
and number them appropriately
- then those links become actionable automatically

-webkit-border-radius:8px; to round corners

you can auto-resize images, but do you really NEED the image??

optimizing for mobile:
  • Not the size of the page, but more imporatntly the number of calls to the server. Combine dependent files to render page faster
  • Minify your javascript and css cssdrive- csscompressor or
  • register with Google small business center for LBS awareness
  • validate your code
Most major CMSs have templates to render content for mobile

Usability testing is tough with a tiny screen, you may have to test on paper prototypes

Google analytics does mobile tracking
"Clicky" mobile hardware tracking
Standard analytics can filter by user agents.

  • mobile OK checker
  • Google webmaster: developing mobile sites
  • Mobile speed test
  • iPhone interface mockup tool
  • mobile site generator
see good examples at NCSU, Oregon State

HTML5 is gonna help a LOT - developers can accss some functions even if their data connection is dropped.

presentation and links here later

CIL2010: Content Containers: Transforming Publishing & Purchasing

Stephen Abram, Vice President, Gale Cengage Learning

Do content containers matter anymore? Paper and cardboard does not a book make. From books
to learning experiences and images to streaming media, the movement in content containers is changing. We are all about transactions - checking out a book, clicking on a page, etc. Is the container the software, the computer, or the PERSON?

What does your experience look like? Bricks, clicks, AND the Librarian's tricks?
Reimagine your physical space by your experience's point of view.

Textbooks are transmogrifying outside of the physical book. The old containers aren't going away, but they are always physical. CONTENT isn't going away but the experience is changing rapidly. It's about discovery and learning space. How does distance ed affect higher ed? How do we change the dynamic of the library and adapt to the new experience? Track WHEN your users are on library resources and WHERE they are coming from.

How do we build Knowledge Portals, Experience Portals, Learning Portals?
Transformations not Transactions
The 21st Century book experience is quite different.
We need to assemble them FOR people. Containers no longer matter.

He'll post full slides later today at

CIL2010: Making It Happen: Getting Things Done

Ken Haycock, Director, School of Library & Information Science, San Jose State University (totally online MLS program)

If you don't PROMOTE yourself, you are doomed to DEFEND yourself.
Two parts: time management and influence.

Evidence-based librarianship - applying what we know.

The curse of low expectations. People don't complain about us, so everything is peachy, right? Death by opportunity - we have so many options, so many directions we can go in, that we need to be more strategic in what we do.

Leadership is a process of social influence through which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in accomplishment of a certain task.

Power is possession of control, authority or influence over others.

Influence is the act of producting an effect without apparent influence of force or direct exercise of command.

TRUST is the most critical component of relationships! Most people are filled with self-doubt, and leadership is based in self-confidence. Trust = character, competence, confidence, credibility, and congruence

Advocacy: based on respect, connecting agendas, recognize that people do things for THEIR reasons, not ours. Figure out what their reasons are. Advocacy isn't talk - talk is not influence.

The trust that libraries use is “spray and pray.” We send stuff out in as many directions as possible and hope something sticks. Public relations is all about us. Marketing is not public relations and publicity. It’s finding out who your users are, what the need, and how we can meet those needs. Advocacy instead is getting the message out. We need to stop talking about libraries and start talking about the actual issues in our communities–all the places that we have evidence to show that we make a difference in our communities.
The single biggest influencer in advocacy efforts is connecting to the values of your customers.

Universal Principles of Advocacy

  • Reciprocation (feel obliged to return favors)
  • Authority (look to experts)
  • Commitment/Consistency (with commitments & values)
  • Scarcity (less available more we want it)
  • Liking (more we like more we want to say yes)
  • Social Proof (what others are doing)

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

*updated * CIL2010: Info Pros & SharePoint: Good Fit

Lorette Weldon, Research Director, Weldon Researchers

It wasn't all bad, one of the audience mentioned Microsoft BDC, which can be used as an online catalog for a small library. Perhaps useful for Mark's Targacept project?

The Speaker posted this article afterward

The Odd Couple: SharePoint and Librarians
By Lorette S.J. Weldon, Published on April 14, 2010


The session held at Computers in Libraries 2010 on April 13, 2010 that I presented was called "SharePoint and Info Pros: A Good Fit". I examined how SharePoint was used within the library environment. I discussed the coordination of collaboration, capturing and organizing "corporate" knowledge, and organizing digital content. I reviewed the results from my survey, "SharePoint Usage in the Library" which demonstrated how librarians could program their department's SharePoint site without code.

Before you begin trying to create a SharePoint site, you should be acquainted with the following terms when dealing with SharePoint:

•Portal: A webpage with information that you want to alert your staff to; Dashboard is embedded to show schedules, reference statistics, etc.

•Website: Portal with linking workspaces.

•Workspace: A webpage with links to widgets

•Widgets: Small programs designed for one task, for example, a calendar, wiki, web parts to display external websites.

•Templates: Specific layout for your portal and/or workspaces. Your customizations to your website could be saved as a template for your department or organization to follow.

•Tacit Knowledge: Skills from experience; "know-how"; Not written down

•Explicit Knowledge: Written in your collection, for example, a document on how to write a Conflict of interest Policy
Information Management Challenge

How many of us go to work with stories to tell our co-workers? You wanted to talk about a recent decision you had to make. A co-worker could want to complain about the poor management of a project. Usually, co-workers gather around the "water cooler" during breaks to "cool-off" and share recent experiences with fellow employees. It could be productive thoughts on assignments and projects that the organization is working on. SharePoint can help "capture" these ideas by becoming a vehicle to allow staff to share what they think about certain projects or actions that the organization or staff has participated in. The Web 2.0 features of Windows Shared Services 3.0 (WSS) and SharePoint 2007 (MOSS) allow your co-workers to feel comfortable with tools that they would use while on the Internet. Wikis, Surveys, Discussion Boards and Dashboards can bring your organization together in discussions that would help each staff member learn from successes, mistakes and challenges which would transfer information and knowledge to and from internal and external stakeholders.

SharePoint was originally created back in 1997 as four platforms: web content management; collaboration; document management; nuggets that display external websites. Through MOSS or WSS, Microsoft has tried to harness what we know of social media sites and mixed it together with our library management practices.

In the beginning, SharePoint was an IT- only application but now it requires input from two groups: the installers and the users. They have to work together to figure out what they want their SharePoint site to do for their organization. I mentioned organization because SharePoint is an enterprise management platform meant to be used by the whole organization. The departments of the organization would gain access to whatever the whole organization agreed on for the functions of SharePoint. SharePoint helps with the accountability of the knowledge collected.

What is SharePoint?

Microsoft SharePoint is being used in Government, private, public and association offices throughout the United States. SharePoint was meant to increase accountability for projects within a team environment. How could SharePoint help increase accountability in information management?

Microsoft SharePoint allows information professionals in an organization to easily create and manage their own Web 2.0 environment. SharePoint is not a specific product but several aspects of Web 2.0 solutions. Two versions you may encounter in the office: Windows SharePoint Services (WSS) 3.0 and Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (MOSS) 2007. WSS is the basic compilation of applications. Special features to add on to your SharePoint would be called MOSS.

SharePoint can help the individual manage their assignments. It can help a team share thoughts and work on documents. It would also work for several teams in a division and spread out to the whole ENTERPRISE, your organization through your Intranet at headquarters to your Extranet to all offices within the organization nation or world-wide. You can define a website or portal that your patrons, customers or members see through the Internet.

SharePoint helps you to manage the prime real estate on your organization's server or organization's hosted space. Look at SharePoint as a home improver and your organization's server as a house. SharePoint could help you organize the storage space so that you could collect corporate knowledge and manage your library collection. Out of the box SharePoint will help you format your server into various modules or rooms. These rooms would be recognizable Web 2.0 tools, such as, Blogs, Wikis, Document Libraries, and Discussion Boards. SharePoint would also provide you with amenities for your house, for example, Announcements, RSS feed, E-Alerts and Web Parts (similar to widgets or gadgets). SharePoint also houses a database (SQL Server 2005 Express) to help it remember how you want everything to function and to store any documents from your library collection (Microsoft 2010).


On Nova's Season 37, Episode 11 - "Riddles of the Sphinx," a group of archaeologists were gathered together in order to find out who built the Sphinx. Archaeologists figured out that there could be three resource types to use to answer this question: Project Team Profiles, Written Reports and Tool Usage ("know-how" experience).

Resource types would be carefully defined SharePoint content types. A content type would specify its own template, so that all Project Team Profiles would share a common format. A content type is a group of reusable settings that describe the shared traits for a specific type of content. Content types allow organizations to manage this type of information in a consistent way across a site collection. You can view them by describing what types of items that you have in your library/special collection.

In conclusion to the episode, Sphinx project reports from the Project Team Profiles could not be obtained because the project team was long dead. Written Reports (Hieroglyphics) had spoken of a restoration effort of the Sphinx but not the actual building of it. Tool Usage was also lost when the project team died in Ancient Egypt. It was never collected. Perhaps, SharePoint could have captured this missing knowledge of how tools were used to build the Sphinx. This information would still not answer the question of "Who built the Sphinx?"

Through Properties feature within Word and Excel, you can provide keywords and categories (subject areas) that would define the individual items in your collection. The Properties feature would open the record for that particular document that you were cataloging. Microsoft Office 2007 allows more fields to be defined within your document's record.

The taxonomy structure can have levels defined through a specified folder structure. The levels could also be represented through the Category and Sub-category sections within the Properties feature.

SharePoint Usage in the Library Survey

Using SharePoint would be managing the "know-how" and explicit knowledge of the organization. From a survey, based on anecdotal information from open-ended questions, that I administered from 3/8/2010 to 4/7/2010, I found that the usage of SharePoint, was underutilized within library-type environments in Government Agencies (State and Federal government), Educational Institutions (University Libraries), Associations (Non-profit/Profit), Private Organizations (Hospitals, Law Firms, Financial Services, Museums). This report summarizes the data and examines trends for SharePoint usage within these environments.

The response rate was 34% based on the states that had returned the survey, which was sent to all of the United States. Three countries had also participated. Surveys were sent to members of the Special Libraries Association of Maryland and District of Columbia, Society of American Archivists, Association of Independent Information Professionals and American Libraries Association.

This table analyzes the results of the survey under five categories: Type of Organization; Location; Who Set It Up; Usage; Version of SharePoint; Customization; Mandated in organization; Widget Usage

SharePoint was found to be used by the library or special collection in order to:

•Support the generation and maintenance of library artifacts

•Facilitate communication and feedback

•Monitor library activities

•Control collection changes

•Analyze and forecast collection's needs, staff performance and patrons' needs
Association Survey Participants manually entered in links to sources like Nexis, Factiva and the association's online catalog. Associations manually scanned periodicals for related subject areas of the library/special collection. RSS Feeds were not used. SharePoint's search engine was used to find news stories, pictures or documents on assorted topics. The majority of the participants did not have Extended Search Services enabled which led to a lot of impatient staff not being able to find documents that they knew were on the server.

Private Institution Survey Participants emphasized a strong need to have a Chief Information Officer onsite who understood what skills librarians possessed. With this knowledge, the Chief Information Officer would be able to translate librarian needs in IT department project management methods and principles. Widgets were created for Grant progress tracking and copyright permission management.

Education Institution Survey Participants were found to need centralized content on procedures and policies for staff to have access to in an intranet-type environment. Through SharePoint, different library departments had created multiple SharePoint Workspaces without any relationship to each of them. Different silos of information multiplied like rabbits on the university server. SharePoint was chosen for the different library departments because it was already used by the university and hosted on the university's server. It also provided accessibility for staff to see the latest announcements, reference statistics, and tasks that needed to be completed.

The survey found that Government Agencies had a struggle between the IT department and the library/special collections in converting project management principles/methods, which SharePoint is teeming with, into information management principles/methods. Survey participants all agreed that the government agencies provide basic SharePoint training but not specific enough to meet the information professionals' needs. Through a dashboard, everyone could see the library's acquisition and cataloging schedules, budgets and overall performance of subject areas covered by reference requests.


Through the survey, the requirements for information professionals to work with and use SharePoint would be technical skills, communication needs of the library and accountability to maintain the library's SharePoint Workspace.

The Technical skill requirement consists of knowledge about: database management and structure; Microsoft Windows; Microsoft Office; Web browsing. In order to communicate needs of the library, the library staff would need to map out the library's needs and correlate them to the features of SharePoint. The result would be a Feature Mapping document that would help you and the IT Department, create a SharePoint workspace that would meet your needs. Once the IT Department assigns user permissions, then you would be able to update content on your site, define account privileges and maintain a document repository.

SharePoint Training for Information Professionals without Coding

If you have more questions on how SharePoint can be used in the library, please come to my online seminar, "Introduction to MS SharePoint without Coding". This online seminar will be presented through WebEx. Registration is now open for the following dates:

•Saturday, June 19, 2010 8:00 PM - 9:00 PM (Eastern Time)

•Saturday, June 26, 2010 8:00 PM - 9:00 PM (Eastern Time)
Read more about it

Dahl, D. J., interview by Lorette S.J. Weldon. Albert S. Cook Library's Reference Dept. at Towson University's Reference Portal (October 5, 2009).

Joining Dots Ltd. SharePoint History. August 28, 2006. (accessed March 12, 2010).

Microsoft. "Determine Hardware and Software Requirements." Technet. 2009. (accessed March 12, 2010).

--. Introduction to document management. 2010. (accessed March 12, 2012).

Reinhart, M. Plague: Folders in SharePoint Document Libraries? . April 13, 2005. (accessed March 12, 2010).

Sy, D.R. SharePoint for Project Management. Cambridge: O'Reilly, 2009.

VSPUG - Virtual SharePoint User Group. The Importance of MetaData in SharePoint. November 1, 2007. (accessed March 12, 2012).

Weldon, L.S.J. "5 Question Survey on Social Media Usage for Professional Learning Communities within Businesses." Survey Analysis, 2009.

--. How are you using SharePoint in your library survey. March 2010. (accessed March 14, 2010).

Weldon, L.S.J. "My Virtual Assistant Saves the Day." Computers in the Libraries (Information Today), November 2007: 18-23.

CIL2010: Crafting Online Personas

Craig Anderson, Kean University
& JP Porcaro, Virtual Services Librarian, New Jersey City University

Most librarians don't want to reveal themselves on Facebook, but it actually humanizes them and let's the students know their not robots. He has a slightly different Craig for different audiences: family & work have different filters, but they both have filters. You don't have to create a pseudonym, just show a facet of yourself. Brought up The Annoyed Librarian (if you don't know, it's very controversial and lots of theories on who it is).

Privacy settings can help a lot, but consider keeping some of your more "eccentric" interests to yourself. You are playing a role in the community, but you are not necessarily representing your institution. There's a balance there. Many people are putting their Fb and Twitter handles in their signature file, and it is becoming the norm - the way you put your phone number there.

This all rolls up into the concept of Digital Citizenship, and for the most part librarians are the head of the curve, at least compared to other academics.

Stephen Abram mentioned that he's worked for three of the largest employers of librarians (vendors like OCLC and Sirsi) and they build a profile of possible job candidates from their online personas, and if there is NO online persona, they think twice about that person's online savviness.

Stephen recommends setting up a google search of your own name/institution and have it send you alerts when you're mentioned.

see also Murphy and Moulaison’s paper “Social Networking Literacy Competencies for Librarians,” the fundamental necessary social networking skills for librarians are addressed along with strategies for helping library staff feel comfortable presenting a digital face to their patrons, employers, and colleagues online.

CIL2010: LibGuides

I really want to try out the user interface for LibGuides - apparently we have access through ZSR? It would be particularly beneficial for first-years. Anatomy, to start? for the powerpoint to browse their actual guides the Nursing one is a good example for us.

Monday, April 12, 2010

CIL2010: Organization 2.0

Meredith Farkas, Head, Instructional Initiatives, Norwich University

Most libraries are not currently structured to successfully embrace Web 2.0, which requires rapid user-centered change, experimentation, and radical trust.

Techno-lust is an issue, our colleagues get sick of us :)
A lot of us are going where our users are, without actually being USEFUL - stop trying to be cool, we are not cool, accept your nerdiness.

Why do so many 2.0 initiatives fail? It's not like free beer, but more like free kittens. Requires WORK. And yes, you have to do this on top of all the rest of your duties. This situation is normal these days. Once the excitement dies down, it can seem like drudgery. Sooo many library blogs and twitter feeds die a slow death, and reflects badly on the library.

Can't be one person's pet project, must strategize to motivate other staff and make time for it. Abandon the culture of perfect. Look outside the library world for applications, opportunities, and inspiration.
  • Professional development is NOT just for the MLSs. All staff need time and support to learn.
  • Use your new people - fresh eyes - ask them what seems wrong.
  • Integrate 2.0 into your technology plan to further the mission and goals of the library.
  • RSS feeds of new books by subject are particularly useful.
  • Link your digital collections in Wikipedia
  • Flickr, etc with comments OPEN
  • Improve internal knowledge sharing (haha like this blog). Much better than post-it notes.
Develop a risk-tolerant culture. Failure is OK. Everything these days is in perpetual beta, and constantly under improvement. Be AGILE - don't get attached to outdated services. You have to get rid of old tech to make room for new. Google gives their staff 20% of their time to play - spend the equivalent of one day a week working on things outside of their job description, and this is where MOST of their new ideas come from.

Create new partnerships, the perfect way to stay alive.

See McMaster Univ. wiki for first year students
Very relevant to first-year med students too!

CIL2010: Digital Commons: Building Digital Communities Using Digital Collections

Jim DelRosso, Web & Digital Projects Manager, Cornell University
Librarians can build online communities around their digital collections in the same way they build physical communities around their physical collections. Makes the Library SUSTAINABLE!

Interest leads to a sense of ownership - it's theirs on some psychological level, helps people have to have an investment in the Library.

Interest: what users want AND what they need. What do we do when these two things differ?

Larger scale reference interview = Assessment. Turn outcome-based assessment into successful marketing.

Use Google Analytics to dig deeper into how user audience interact with collections.
Allow for user-created content - really creates a sense of ownership. Also user-sponsored content, and user-organized content. More than a traditional repository. Faculty pubs is user-created content!

River Campus Libraries - browse new titles ( scroll down)

Develop a sense of investment - creates superusers that interact directly with the collection. Will also interact more directly with librarians, and with each other. Investment starts to look a lot like community.

CIL2010: Keynote

Keynote Speaker: Lee Rainie, Director of Pew Internet & American Life Project
Produce reports on Americans' online activities. He has a new book coming out: Networked, the New Information Operating System

Pew is not a think tank, but a Fact Tank. They don't advocate a particular agenda, but generate a lot of information. Lee considers himself an Internet Archeologist - he examines the remains, but does not pass judgment. (I have used their data to support many grant proposals and technology project plans.)

NEW WORD: Tweckle: to abuse (heckle) a speaker via Twitter while he is speaking

Internet is the change agent, then and now. Dawn of the project in 2000 compared to today:
In 2000, less than half of adults used internet
5% had broadband at home
50% owned cellphone

Today 75% of adults
62% have broadband at home
80% have cellphones

Life Logging - ~30% share photos, personal creations, ratings and rankings of about purchases, services, etc.
15% have a personal website
15% are content remixers

There's a fine line between blogging and social networks. It's hard to measure how many people READ blogs, now that so many orgs are using blog platforms as their website platform (like ZSR).

Networked Creators democratize the voices in media, has challenged traditional gatekeepers. Inserted themselves in "expert" affairs. Once you start blogging about something, you become a stakeholder and are more involved in the process. About a FIFTH have contributed health content!! They are reshaping the relationship between providers (doctors) and the consumers (patients). Online patient communities are helping people navigate the system in a new way.

MacArthur Foundation has a new site: - digital literacy program
13 elements of new literacy enumerated
New Community-Building activities

Crowdsourcing wisdom, especially among "strangers" who share a common purpose.
Particularly being seen in healthcare - example of Karen Parles librarian with lung cancer who founded An online support group gave her SO much support that she created a space and it's still going strong after her death. It's still having an impact on others being diagnosed. Just-in-time information provided by someone in their same situation, ad hoc and on-the-fly. Communities of "rare species".

Libraries can be nodes in their social networks, as people seek information to help them solve their problems and meet their needs. They need friends like us!!

We can teach new literacies: screen (graphics and symbols), navigation, connections, context, skepticism, creating content, ethical behavior.